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THE FISH (ICHTHUS, ICTUS), CROSS AND CRUCIFIX

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Christian symbols

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The history of the Christian fish symbol:

The fish outline is a logical symbol for the early Christian church to adopt. Fish
are often mentioned in the gospels. This is what one would expect, if Jesus did
most of his teaching in the Galilee. The synoptic gospels state this, although
the Gospel of John denies it. Fish were a staple in the diet of Galilee.

Some gospel verses which mention fish are:

bullet Mark 1:17: “Come after Me, and I will make you become fishers of
men.”

bullet Matthew 12:40: “…Jonah was three days and three nights in the belly of
the great fish, so will the Son of Man be three days and three nights in the heart of the
earth.”

bullet Matthew 14:17: “And they said to Him, ‘We have here only five loaves and
two fish.'”

bullet Luke 5:6: “And when they had done this, they caught a great number of
fish, and their net was breaking.”

bullet Luke 24:42: “So they gave Him a piece of a broiled fish and some
honeycomb.”

bullet John 21:6: “And He said to them, ‘Cast the net on the right side of the
boat, and you will find some.’ So they cast, and now they were not able to draw it in
because of the multitude of fish.”

bullet 1 Corinthians 15:39: “All flesh is not the same flesh, but there is one
kind of flesh of men, another flesh of beasts, another of fish, and another of
birds.”

Some Christians believe that a second link between their religion and the fish symbol
is seen in the Greek word for fish (ichthus, spelled: Iota Chi Theta Upsilon Sigma). That
is an acrostic which has many translations in English. The most popular appears
to be “Jesus Christ, Son of God, Savior” 16 [Iesous
(Jesus) CHristos (Christ) THeou (God) Uiou (Son) Soter
(Savior)]. Alternative meanings (in order of decreasing popularity on the
Internet) are:

An acrostic is an “arrangement of words in which the first letter
of each line ordinarily combines with others to form a word or words or the
alphabet.
” 1

The Apostles were often referred to as “fishers of men“. Followers of
Christianity were called Pisciculi; the root of this Latin word is
“fish”. The symbols of “sacramental fish, with wine and a basket of
bread represents the Eucharist and the Last Supper in Christian art.
” 2 The
symbol was simple to draw and was often used among Christians as a type of password during
times of persecution by the Roman government. If two strangers met and were unsure whether
each other was a Christian, one would draw an arc in the earth like:). If the other
were a Christian, they would complete the symbol with a reverse arc: (), forming
the outline of a fish.

According to Albatrus.org: “When threatened by Romans in the first centuries after Christ, Christians
used the fish [symbol to] mark meeting places and tombs, or to distinguish friends from
foes.”

In modern times, the fish outline symbol is experiencing a comeback. It is commonly
seen in the form of a bumper sticker or casting mounted on the trunk lids of cars. The
body of the symbol may be empty, or may contain a name (“Jesus” or
“ICTUS”). This has inspired some Secularists, Atheists and promoters of the
theory of evolution to mimic the Christian fish symbol with one of their own. It usually
has “DARWIN” in the body of the fish, and little legs underneath. This has
prompted “fish wars” between supporters of the secular and religious symbols.
Reference 3 contains a humorous expose of the battle between the Darwin and Christian
fish. It displays some new species such as the “Evolve Fish” (a fish with
“EVOLVE” on its body and a wrench in one of its forepaws) and the “Shark
Jesus Fish” (a shark that eats all types of Jesus Fish).

We were asked by a visitor to our web site whether the orientation of the
fish symbol was important. He was about to have it inlaid into a very expensive
instrument. We surfed a few dozen web sites on the Internet and found dozens of
Ichthus symbols:

We also found a satirical essay “Experts concerned about backward Jesus
fishes
” which suggested, with tongue in cheek, that fish swimming to the
right is “a duplicitous tool of Satan, the Lord of Lies…Our children are
viewing these fish and are losing their grip on morality….These backwards
fishes, and all their inherent evils could destroy a society.
” 13

The most meaningful orientation is probably to have the fish swimming to the left, as is shown above. The symbol then resembles the first
letter of the Greek alphabet, alpha. That recalls Revelation 1:8:

“I am Alpha and Omega, the beginning and the ending, saith the Lord, which is, and which was, and which is to come, the Almighty.” (King James Version).

The pre-Christian history of the fish symbol:

The fish symbol has been used for millennia worldwide as a religious symbol associated
with the Pagan Great Mother Goddess. It is the outline of her vulva. The fish symbol was
often drawn by overlapping two very thin crescent moons. One represented the crescent
shortly before the new moon; the other shortly after, when the moon is just visible. The
Moon is the heavenly body that has long been associated with the Goddess, just as the sun
is a symbol of the God.

The link between the Goddess and fish was found in various areas of the ancient world:

bullet In China, Great Mother Kwan-yin often portrayed in the shape of a fish.
bullet In India, the Goddess Kali was called the “fish-eyed one”
bullet In Egypt, Isis was called the Great Fish of the Abyss
bullet In Greece the Greek word “delphos” meant both fish and womb. The word is
derived from the location of the ancient Oracle at Delphi who worshipped the original fish
goddess, Themis. The later fish Goddess, Aphrodite Salacia, was worshipped by her
followers on her sacred day, Friday. They ate fish and engaging in orgies. From her name
comes the English word “salacious” which means lustful or obscene. Also from her
name comes the name of our fourth month, April. In later centuries, the Christian church
adsorbed this tradition by requiring the faithful to eat fish on Friday – a tradition that
was only recently abandoned.
bullet In ancient Rome Friday is called “dies veneris” or Day of Venus, the Pagan
Goddess of Love.

bullet Throughout the Mediterranean, mystery religions used fish, wine and bread for their
sacramental meal.
bullet In Scandinavia, the Great Goddess was named Freya; fish were eaten in her honor. The 6th
day of the week was named “Friday” after her.
bullet In the Middle East, the Great Goddess of Ephesus was portrayed as a woman with a fish
amulet over her genitals.

The fish symbol:

“… was so revered throughout the Roman empire that Christian
authorities insisted on taking it over, with extensive revision of myths to deny its
earlier female-genital meanings…Sometimes the Christ child was portrayed inside the vesica, which was superimposed on Mary’s belly and obviously represented her womb, just as
in the ancient symbolism of the Goddess.” 4 Another author writes: “The
fish headdress of the priests of Ea [a Sumero-Semitic God] later became the miter
of the Christian bishops.” 5

The symbol itself, the eating of fish on Friday and the association of the symbol with
deity were all taken over by the early Church from Pagan sources. Only the sexual
component was deleted.

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The history of the cross symbol in Christianity

Early depictions on Jesus usually showed Jesus in the form of a shepherd carrying a lamb. Tertullian
(140-230 CE), a Montanist heretic, commented in his essay De Corona: “At
every forward step and movement, at every going in and out, when we put on our our clothes
and shoes, when we bathe, when we sit at table, when we light the lamps, on couch, on
seat, in all the ordinary actions of daily life, we trace upon the forehead the sign.

This might be an early reference to individuals tracing the sign of the cross on their
body.

The use of the cross as a symbol was condemned by at least one church father of the 3rd
century CE because of its Pagan origins. The first appearance of a cross in Christian art
is on a Vatican sarcophagus from the mid-5th Century. 11 It was a Greek cross
with equal-length arms. Jesus’ body was not shown. The first crucifixion scenes didn’t
appear in Christian art until the 7th century CE. The original cross symbol was in the
form of a Tau Cross. It was so named because it looked like the letter “tau”, or
our letter “T”. One author speculates that the Church may have copied the
symbol from the Pagan Druids who made crosses in this form to represent the Thau (god).
7 They joined two limbs from oak trees. The Tau cross became associated with St. Philip who
was allegedly crucified on such a cross in Phrygia. May Day, a major Druidic seasonal day
of celebration, became St. Philip’s Day. Later in Christian history, the Tau Cross became
the Roman Cross that we are familiar with today.

The shape of the original crucifixion device is a matter for speculation. Sometimes,
the Romans executed people on a Tau cross, sometimes on a Roman cross and sometimes on a
simple stake. The gospels, which were originally written in Greek, use the word “stauros
to refer to the execution structure. (see Mark 15:21,
Mark 15:32, Matthew 27:32, Luke 23:26,
John 19:17). This appears as the word “cross” in all but one of the
English versions that we have examined. But in reality, the Greek word usually means a
vertical pole without a crossbar. The New World Translation, sponsored by the Watchtower Bible & Tract Society, translates the word as “torture
stake.”
8 Hermann Fulda, author of “The Cross and Crucifixion”
is commented that:

Acts 5:30 refers to “hanging him on a tree.”
1 Peter 2:24
says “He himself bore our sins in his body on the tree.”

Deuteronomy 21:23 stated that a person hung on a tree was be cursed by
God. This verse was a major stumbling block that prevented many Jews from accepting Jesus as
the Messiah.

According to author Graydon F. Snyder:

“[Today’s]….universal use of the sign of the cross makes more
poignant the striking lack of crosses in early Christian remains,
especially any specific reference to the event on Golgotha. Most
scholars now agree that the cross as an artistic reference to the
passion event cannot be found prior to the time of Constantine.”

More on the pre-Christian history of the cross symbol

From its simplicity of form, the cross has been used both as a religious symbol
and as an ornament, from the dawn of man’s civilization. Various objects, dating from
periods long anterior to the Christian era, have been found, marked with crosses of
different designs, in almost every part of the old world.
9
The cross symbol
was found in: 10

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The Pentacle:

Pentagrams (a five pointed star) and Pentacles (a pentagram inside a circle)
have been widely used by followers of different religions:

References

  1. D.T. Kauffman, Ed., “Baker’s Concise Dictionary of Religion“, Baker
    Book House, Grand Rapids MI, (1985), Page 13.
  2. J.C. Cooper, “An Illustrated Encyclopaedia of Traditional Symbols“,
    Thames & Hudson, London, UK, (1979), Page 68-69.
  3. Information about the fish wars can be seen at:

    1. The Fish Wars http://www.expocity.com/.
    2. See also http://www.meangene.com/
    3. Evolution Observed at: http://www.rof.com/
    4. Ring of Fire catalog at: http://www.rof.com/
  4. B.G. Walker, “The Woman’s Encyclopaedia of Myths and Secrets“, Harper
    & Row, San Francisco CA (1983), Page 313-314
  5. J.C. Cooper, op cit, Page 15.
  6. B.G. Walker, “The Woman’s dictionary of Symbols and Sacred Objects“,
    Harper Collins, San Francisco (1988)
  7. B.G. Walker, “The Woman’s Encyclopaedia” op cit, Page 188-190
  8. Jehovah’s Witnesses: What do We Believe: Did Jesus Die on a Cross?” is
    at: http://www.happinessinthepark.com/
  9. The Encyclopaeia Britannica, 11th Edition, Vol. VII, Page. 506
  10. J.C. Cooper, op cit, Page 45-47.
  11. B.M. Metzger, M.D. Coogan, “The Oxford Companion to the Bible,
    Oxford University Press, (1993), Page 57
  12. Tertullian, “De Corona, (or The Chaplet),” at: http://www.csn.net/advent/fathers/0304.htm
  13. “Experts Concerned About Backward Jesus Fishes,” InternetTrash.com at:

    http://internettrash.com/
  14. Graydon F. Snyder, “Ante Pacem: Archaeological Evidence of Church
    Life Before Constantine
    ,” Mercer University Press, (2003), Page 27.
    Read
    reviews or order this book safely from Amazon.com online book store
  15. From the web site of the Evangelical Luterhan Conference & Ministerium
    at:
    http://www.elcm.org/
  16. Gregory B. Dill, “The History of the Ichthus,” at: Plymouth
    Church of Christ, at:
    http://www.plymouth-church.com/
  17. JCSM's Top 1000 Christian Sites - Free Traffic Sharing Service!
    We have been invited to exchange links with Jesus Christ Saves Ministries (JCSM).
  18. “Origin of the ‘Christian’ Fish Symbol,” at:

    http://www.albatrus.org/

Copyright © 1997 to 2009 by Ontario
Consultants on Religious Tolerance
Latest update: 2009-NOV-17
Author: B.A. Robinson

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